Advance Topics in SAP for Interview

What is SAP?

The name SAP a German company is an acronym for "Systeme, Anwendungen, Produkte in der Datenverarbeitung." This is translated in English as "Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing."

SAP is the name of the company founded in 1972 under the German name (Systems, Applications, and Products in Data Processing) is the leading ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) software package in the country today.

What are different types of ERP?

SAP, BAAN, JD Edwards, Oracle Financials, Siebel, PeopleSoft. Among all the ERPs SAP have a number of advantages aver other ERP packages.

What is ERP?

ERP is a package which has techniques and concepts for the integrated management of business as a whole, for effective use of management resources, to improve the efficiency of an enterprise. Initially, ERP was targeted for manufacturing industry mainly for planning and managing core businesses like production and finances. ERP software is designed for basic processes of a company from manufacturing to retail with a target of integrating information across the company.

Explain the concept of “Business Content” in SAP Business Information Warehouse?

Business Content is a pre-configured set of role and task-relevant information models based on consistent Metadata in the SAP Business Information Warehouse. Business Content provides selected roles within a company with the information they need to carry out their tasks. These information models essentially contain roles, workbooks, queries, InfoSources, InfoCubes, key figures, characteristics, update rules and extractors for SAP R/3, mySAP.com Business Applications and other selected applications.

Why do you usually choose to implement SAP?

There are number of technical reasons numbers of companies are planning to implement SAP. It’s highly configurable, highly secure, offers better data handling, minimum data redundancy, maximum data consistency. You can capitalize on economics of sales like purchasing and tight integration-cross function.

Can BW run without a SAP R/3 implementation?

Certainly! You can run BW without R/3 implementation. You can use pre-defined business content in BW using your non-SAP data. Here you simply need to map the transfer structures associated with BW data sources (InfoCubes, ODS tables) to the inbound data files or use 3rd part tool to connect your flat files and other data sources and load data in BW. Several third party ETL products such as Acta, Infomatica, DataStage and others will have been certified to load data in BW.

What is IDES?

IDES stands for International Demonstration and Education System. A sample application provided for faster learning and implementation.

What is WF and its importance?

Business Work Flow: Tool for automatic control and execution of cross-application processes. This involves coordinating the persons involved, the work steps required, the data, which needs to be processed (business objects). The main advantage is reduction in throughput times and the costs involved in managing business processes. Transparency and quality are enhanced by its use.

What is SAP R/3?

A third generation set of highly integrated software modules that performs common business function based on multinational leading practice. It takes care of any enterprise, however diverse in operation.. In R/3 system all the three servers like presentation, application server and database server are located in different systems.

What are presentation, application and database servers in SAP R/3?

The application layer of an R/3 System is made up of the application servers and the message server. Application programs in an R/3 System are run on application servers. The application servers communicate with the presentation components, the database, and also with each other, using the message server. All the data are stored in a centralized server. This server is called database server.

What should be the approach for writing a BDC program?

Convert the legacy system data to a flat file and convert flat file into internal table. Transfer the flat file into sap system called “Sap data transfer”. Call transaction(Write the program explicitly) or create sessions (sessions are created and processed ,if data is successfully transferred).

Explain open SQL vs native SQL?

ABAP Native SQL allows you to include database-specific SQL statements in an ABAP program. Most ABAP programs containing database-specific SQL statements do not run with different databases. If different databases are involved, use Open SQL. To execute ABAP Native SQL in an ABAP program, use the statement EXEC. Open SQL (Subset of standard SQL statements), allows you to access all database tables available in the R/3 System, regardless of the manufacturer. To avoid conflicts between database tables and to keep ABAP programs independent from the database system used, SAP has generated its own set of SQL statements known as Open SQL.

What are datasets?

The sequential files (processed on application server) are called datasets. They are used for file handling in SAP.

What are internal tables check table, value table, and transparent table?

Internal table: It is a standard data type object, which exists only during the runtime of the program. Check table: Check table will be at field level checking. Value table: Value table will be at domain level checking ex: scarr table is check table for carrid. Transparent table: - Exists with the same structure both in dictionary as well as in database exactly with the same data and fields.

What are the major benefits of reporting with BW over R/3? Would it be sufficient just to Web-enable R/3 Reports?

Performance — Heavy reporting along with regular OLTP transactions can produce a lot of load both on the R/3 and the database (cpu, memory, disks, etc). Just take a look at the load put on your system during a month end, quarter end, or year-end — now imagine that occurring even more frequently. Data analysis — BW uses a Data Warehouse and OLAP concepts for storing and analyzing data, where R/3 was designed for transaction processing. With a lot of work you can get the same analysis out of R/3 but most likely would be easier from a BW.

How can an ERP such as SAP help a business owner learn more about how business operates?

In order to use an ERP system, a business person must understand the business processes and how they work together from one functional area to the other. This knowledge gives the student a much deeper understanding of how a business operates. Using SAP as a tool to learn about ERP systems will require that the people understand the business processes and how they integrate.

What is the difference between OLAP and Data Mining?

OLAP - On line Analytical processing is a reporting tool configured to understand your database schema, composition facts and dimensions. By simple point-n-clicking, a user can run any number of canned or user-designed reports without having to know anything of SQL or the schema. Because of that prior configuration, the OLAP engine “builds” and executes the appropriate SQL. Mining is to build the application to specifically look at detailed analyses, often algorithmic; even more often misappropriately called “reporting.

What is “Extended Star Schema” and how did it emerge?

The Star Schema consists of the Dimension Tables and the Fact Table. The Master Data related tables are kept in separate tables, which has reference to the characteristics in the dimension table(s). These separate tables for master data are termed as the Extended Star Schema.

Define Meta data, Master data and Transaction data

Meta Data: Data that describes the structure of data or MetaObjects is called Metadata. In other words data about data is known as Meta Data. Master Data: Master data is data that remains unchanged over a long period of time. It contains information that is always needed in the same way. Characteristics can bear master data in BW. With master data you are dealing with attributes, texts or hierarchies. Transaction data: Data relating to the day-to-day transactions is the Transaction data.

 

Name some drawbacks of SAP

Interfaces are a huge problem, SAP is expensive, very complex, demands highly trained staff, and involves lengthy implementation time.

What is Bex?

Bex stands for Business Explorer. Bex enables end user to locate reports, view reports, analyze information and can execute queries. The queries in workbook can be saved to there respective roles in the Bex browser. Bex has the following components: Bex Browser, Bex analyzer, Bex Map, Bex Web.

What are variables?

Variables are parameters of a query that are set in the parameter query definition and are not filled with values until the queries are inserted into workbooks. There are different types of variables which are used in different application: Characteristics variables, Hierarchies and hierarchy node, Texts, Formulas, Processing types, User entry/Default type, Replacement Path.

What is AWB?. What is its purpose?

AWB stands for Administrator WorkBench. AWB is a tool for controlling, monitoring and maintaining all the processes connected with data staging and processing in the business information warehousing.

What is the significance of ODS in BIW?

An ODS Object serves to store consolidated and debugged transaction data on a document level (atomic level). It describes a consolidated dataset from one or more InfoSources. This dataset can be analyzed with a BEx Query or InfoSet Query. The data of an ODS Object can be updated with a delta update into InfoCubes and/or other ODS Objects in the same system or across systems. In contrast to multi-dimensional data storage with InfoCubes, the data in ODS Objects is stored in transparent, flat database tables.

What are the different types of source system?

SAP R/3 Source Systems, SAP BW, Flat Files and External Systems.

What is Extractor?

Extractor is a data retrieval mechanism in the SAP source system, which can fill the extract structure of a data source with the data from the SAP source system datasets. The extractor may be able to supply data to more fields than exist in the extract structure.

Describe how SAP handles Memory Management?

In general via table buffers, you could go into the whole Work Process, roll in, roll out, heap (private) memory, etc. However just as a Unix or DBA admin would know, is you look this up when needed for the exact specifics.

Describe where they would look at the buffer statistics, and what steps they would use to adjust them?

ST02, RZ10 ...

Describe how to setup a printer in SAP or where you  would look to research why a user/users cannot print?

SPAD, SP01, SM50, SU01 ...

Can you create a table with fields not referring to data elements?

YES. eg:- ITAB LIKE SPFLI.here we are referencing to a data object(SPFLI) not data element.

What are the different types of data dictionary objects?

Tables, structures, views, domains, data elements, lock objects, Match code objects.

What should be the approach for writing a BDC program?

STEP 1: CONVERTING THE LEGACY SYSTEM DATA TO A FLAT FILE to internal table CALLED "CONVERSION".
STEP 2: TRANSFERING THE FLAT FILE INTO SAP SYSTEM CALLED "SAP DATA TRANSFER".
STEP 3: DEPENDING UPON THE BDC TYPE
i) call transaction(Write the program explicitly)
ii) create sessions (sessions are created and processed. if successfully data is transferred).

What are the problems in processing batch input sessions and how is batch input process different from processing online?

  1. If the user forgets to opt for keep session then the session will be automatically removed from the session queue(log remains). However if sessions are processed we may delete it manually.

  2. If session processing fails data will not be transferred to SAP database table.

What does an extract statement do in the ABAP program?

Once you have declared the possible record types as field groups and defined their structure, you can fill the extract dataset using the following statements: EXTRACT. When the first EXTRACT statement occurs in a program, the system creates the extract dataset and adds the first extract record to it. In each subsequent EXTRACT statement, the new extract record is added to the dataset EXTRACT HEADER. When you extract the data, the record is filled with the current values of the corresponding fields. As soon as the system has processed the first EXTRACT statement for a field group , the structure of the corresponding extract record in the extract dataset is fixed. You can no longer insert new fields into the field groups and HEADER. If you try to modify one of the field groups afterwards and use it in another EXTRACT statement, a runtime error occurs. By processing EXTRACT statements several times using different field groups, you fill the extract dataset with records of different length and structure. Since you can modify field groups dynamically up to their first usage in an EXTRACT statement, extract datasets provide the advantage that you need not determine the structure at the beginning of the program.

Can a transparent table exist in data dictionary but not in the data base physically?

No. Transparent table do exist with the same structure both in the dictionary as well as in the database, exactly with the same data and fields.

What is the step by step process to create a table in data dictionary?

step 1: creating domains(data type, field length, range).
step 2: creating data elements(properties and type for a table field).
step 3: creating tables(SE11).

What is the typical structure of an ABAP/4 program?

HEADER ,BODY,FOOTER.

A situation: An ABAP program creates a batch input session. We need to submit the program and the batch session in back ground. How to do it?

go to SM36 and create background job by giving job name, job class and job steps (JOB SCHEDULING)

What are the domains and data elements?

Domains : formal definition of the data types. They set attributes such as data type,length,range. Data element : a field in r/3 system is a data element.

What is the alternative to batch input session?

Call transaction.

What is a batch input session?

BATCH INPUT SESSION is an intermediate step between internal table and database table. Data along with the action is stored in session ie data for screen fields, to which screen it is passed, program name behind it, and how next screen is processed.

What is the advantage of structures? How do you use them in the ABAP programs?

Adv:- GLOBAL EXISTANCE(these could be used by any other program without creating it again).

How many types of tables exist and what are they in data dictionary?

4 types of tables
i)Transparent tables - Exists with the same structure both in dictionary as well as in database exactly with the same data and fields. Both Opensql and Nativesql can be used. ii)Pool tables &
iii)Cluster tables - These are logical tables that are arranged as records of transparent tables. one cannot use native sql on these tables (only open sql).They are not manageable directly using database system tools.
iv)Internal tables

What is SAP APO?

SAP APO stands for Advanced Planner and Optimizer, which is one area of SCM and application component of MySAP product. Its is designed to provide solutions for companies in Demand planning, network design, supply network planning, production planning and global available to promise, transportation and scheduling.

What is the schema you use in Time Management?
Schema : TC00

What is the work relation between SAP-MM, SD and fi/co modules?

SAP is the integration of all the modules and the topics are very relavent to each other because basically its management skillsetgroup. From manufacturing the product/goods/services to reaching the customer. All the transaction process is depending on sales area, sales doc, item proposals, shipping, delivery and billing.

In SAP-HR, What is the landscape of your project?

(Standard example is provided here) Landscape in SAP consists the following: 1. IDES = Training Server
2. Development Server
* Configuration (200 client)
* Sandbox (210 client)
* Data Change (220 client)
3. Quality Server
* Standby (300 client)
* Testing (310 client)
4. Production Server
* Pre-Production (400 client)
* Real Production (500 client)

What is the role of abapers? What is the Work Bench?

Abaper is an application programmer who retrieves the data from the database and show it to the end-user with the help of report. Out of three layers of SAP the abaper position is on Application Layer in which SAP programs are develop and then transported to the Production server...

Workbench... The ABAP Workbench contains several tools that allow you to edit specific repository objects such as ABAP Editor, Menu Painter etc...

What is Legacy System Migration Workbench? How it can be carried out in SAP SD?

LSMW is used for migrating data from a legacy system to SAP system, or from one SAP system to another.

Apart from standard batch/direct input and recordings, BAPI and IDocs are available as additional import methods for processing the legacy data.

The LSMW comprises the following main steps:
* Read data (legacy data in spreadsheet tables and/or sequential files).
* Convert data (from the source into the target format).
* Import data (to the database used by the R/3 application.

But, before these steps, you need to perform following steps :
* Define source structure : structure of data in the source file.
* Define target structure : structure of SAP that receives data.
* Field mapping: Mapping between the source and target structure with conversions, if any.
* Specify file: location of the source file

Of all the methods used for data migration like BDC, LSMW , Call Transaction which one is used most of the time? How the decision is made and which method should be followed? What is the procedure followed for this analysis?

All the 3 methods are used to migrate data. Selection of these methods depends on the scenario, amounts of data need to transfer. LSMW is a ready tool provided by SAP and you have to follow some 17 steps to migrate master data. While in BDCs Session method is the better choice because of some advantages over call transaction. But call transaction is also very useful to do immediate updating of small amount of data. (In call transaction developer has to handle errors).

Bottom line is make choice of these methods based of real time requirements.

These methods are chosen completely based on situation you are in. Direct input method is not available for all scenarios; else, they are the simplest ones. In batch input method, you need to do recording for the transaction concerned. Similarly, IDoc, and BAPI are there, and use of these need to be decided based on the requirement.

Try to go through the some material on these four methods, and implement them. You will then have a fair idea about when to use which.

What are the types of inforecords?

- Standard
- Pipeline
- Consignment
- Subcontracting

What is meant by consignment stock?

Consignment stock is the material which is lying in the premises but is not owned by the company. It has no value assigned to it until it is taken into own stock. Once it is used in production or to be sold, it is taken into own stock.

What are the steps involved in consignment cycle?

Consignment cycle is similar to a standard purchase cycle. The difference it that no accounting document is created at the time of goods receipts only QTY is updated.
It is settled once the same is utilized.

Tell me about the subcontracting cycle.

When the material is sent for subcontracting i.e. some value addition, it is converted into a different material. It needs a BOM to define the components of the finished item being received.

How is scrap accounted in subcontracting?

The scrap or the process loss can be adjusted while doing a quality inspection of the material received after subcontracting.

How are the byproducts taken care of in subcontracting?

Byproducts can be taken care of by defining them in the BOM

Tell me about the various movement types and usage.

101 – GR in unrest. use
103 – GR in Blocked stock
105 – Release from Block to Unrest. use stock.
122 – Return to vendor from unrest. use stock.
124 – Return to vendor from blocked stock
301 - Plant to Plant tfr.
309 – Material to Material tfr.
311 – Tfr. from stg loc to stg loc
261 – Issue for consumption.
411 – Taking consignment stock into own stock.
551 – Withdrawal for scrapping.
Etc.

What is a  full implementation of life cycle in SAP-BW.?

Full life cycle implementation means implementing the project start from requirement gathering, analysis, solution desion, mapping, implementing according to ASAP methodology.

How the Price determination process works in SAP-MM?

Price determination process:
Create a Price schema
Add a condition type if required
Asssign Access sequence to the condition type.
Create a condition table and specify flds required.
Create a cond. rec. The price schema for the particular mat. has a cond type. This pricing will trigger the Price determination process. Basically the access sequence assigned to the cond type will search the cond table to find the particular cond. rec. and determin the price.

What are the activities we will do in SAP MM module implementation?

Various activities in SAP MM are : Inventory, Warehouse, Purchasing, Vendor evolution, Invoice varification, etc.

Explain what are the steps in the SD process at least up to the invoicing stage

Answer1:
1) pre-sales activity -inquiry,quotation
2) sales-order,
3) inventory sourcing,
4) delivery,
5) pgi,
6) invoicing

Answet2:
SD Inquiry-- Quotation---Sales Order---Delivery---Transfer Order----Post Good Issue----Billing---Invoicing.

Condition technique

condition technique means, the combination of
- condition table
- access sequence
- conditon type
- procedure
- determination

What work gets done in the MM module and what programs do you use for creating views in MM?

In MM
1.Stock overview for a period can be done by Tcode-MB5B -further giving details like storage location,Plant,Material code,Date..
2.Stock as on date can be viewed by using Tcode-MMBE-further giving details like storage location, Plant, Material,code.mail

How do you get the Sales Order (S.O) No. from the Delivery Order?

There are 2 ways through which you can see the reference of the documents.
1) Through Document Flow
2)Enter the delivery-> Go at the item level and select TAB PREDECESSOR DATA tab and you can see the reference order number.

What is an Open Item in SAP? How will you find an Open Item in SAP?

you can generate a list of open items from the information systems menu option:
* General Ledger: Information system , General ledger reports , Line items , General ledger line items , G/L line items, list for printing.
* Accounts Receivable: Information system
,Reports for accounts receivable , Customer items , List of customer open items for printing.
*Accounts Payable: Information system , Reports for accounts payable,, Vendor items , List of vendor open items for printing

What are the tools used in SAP Implementation? How do you create Alert Messages?

One of the Tools being used for SAP Implemention is QuickSizer, which is used to size the SAP Server based on number of users using various modules in SAP.

Alert Message is created in the CCMS monitor using TCodes RZ20 and RZ21. The values for Alert AutoReaction Methods are defined using the TCode RZ21, while this particular method is assigned to the Monitoring Tree Element (MTE) in the TCode RZ20.

One as well can have an Alert Management System, where alerts from the Entire Landscape can be configured in a Central Monitoring System from where it can trigger a alert mail or SMS to the concerned Administrator

Whats the difference between R3trans and Tp in SAP-DBA?

R/3trans is the R/3 system transport program which can be used for transporting data between different SAP systems ,even when they don’t belong to the same group. R3trans normally is not used directorly but called from the Tp controle program or by the R/3 upgrade. Tp is the basic tool for the transporting the request.

What is an ABAP?

ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming) is a high level programming language created by the German software company SAP. It is currently positioned as the language for programming SAP's Web Application Server, part of its NetWeaver platform for building business applications. Its syntax is somewhat similar to COBOL.

What is an ABAP data dictionary?

ABAP 4 data dictionary describes the logical structures of the objects used in application development and shows how they are mapped to the underlying relational database in tables/views.

What is an ABAP/4 Query?

ABAP/4 Query is a powerful tool to generate simple reports without any coding. ABAP/4 Query can generate the following 3 simple reports: Basic List: It is the simple reports. Statistics: Reports with statistical functions like Average, Percentages. Ranked Lists: For analytical reports. - For creating a ABAP/4 Query, programmer has to create user group and a functional group. Functional group can be created using with or without logical database table. Finally, assign user group to functional group. Finally, create a query on the functional group generated.

What is BDC programming?

Transferring of large/external/legacy data into SAP system using Batch Input programming. Batch input is a automatic procedure referred to as BDC(Batch Data Communications).The central component of the transfer is a queue file which receives the data vie a batch input programs and groups associated data into “sessions”.

What is ITS?

What are the merits of ITS?- ITS is a Internet Transaction Server. ITS forms an interface between HTTP server and R/3 system, which converts screen provided data by the R/3 system into HTML documents and vice-versa. Merits of ITS: A complete web transaction can be developed and tested in R/3 system. All transaction components, including those used by the ITS outside the R/3 system at runtime, can be stored in the R/3 system. The advantage of automatic language processing in the R/3 system can be utilized to language-dependent HTML documents at runtime.

What is ALV programming in ABAP? When is this grid used in ABAP?

ALV is Application List viewer. Sap provides a set of ALV (ABAP LIST VIEWER) function modules which can be put into use to embellish the output of a report. This set of ALV functions is used to enhance the readability and functionality of any report output. Cases arise in sap when the output of a report contains columns extending more than 255 characters in length. In such cases, this set of ALV functions can help choose selected columns and arrange the different columns from a report output and also save different variants for report display. This is a very efficient tool for dynamically sorting and arranging the columns from a report output. The report output can contain up to 90 columns in the display with the wide array of display options.

What are the events in ABAP/4 language?

Initialization, At selection-screen, Start-of-selection, end-of-selection, top-of-page, end-of-page, At line-selection, At user-command, At PF, Get, At New, At LAST, AT END, AT FIRST.

 

What is DynPro?

DynPro is a Dynamic Programming which is a combination of screen and the associated flow logic Screen is also called as DynPro.








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